Marketplace - American Public Media
Nelson Bunker Hunt, the billionaire oil tycoon who once tried to corner the world's silver market, died yesterday in Dallas at the age of 88. He was an heir to the Hunt oil fortune and at one time, among the richest people on the planet. But a huge bet on the silver market in the late '70s led to a silver craze and a financial debacle.
Hunt's obituary in The Dallas Morning News describes him as an oilman, patriot, horseman, Christian and John Birch Society member, among other things. But in financial circles he and his brother were best known for owning a frighteningly big chunk of the world's silver. They wanted to hedge against raging inflation, they said.
"They bid up the price of silver from $9 an ounce to, at its peak, something like $50 an ounce in January 1980," said John Coffee, a professor at Columbia University.
But when worried regulators set new trading limits on silver, the Hunts couldn't meet a margin call. Silver prices collapsed, they lost over a billion dollars, their lenders were in trouble, and yes, a federal bailout of sorts ensued. Hunt declared bankruptcy – the largest personal bankruptcy in American history.
"It took me probably 30 days to get an organizational chart dealing with probably more than 250 companies that he owned or had an interest in all over the world," said Hunt's bankruptcy lawyer, Russell Munsch, of Munsch, Hardt, Kopf and Harr. The front page of the New York Times on March 28, 1980 with a headline about Silver Thursday and the Hunt brothers. It reads, Silver's Plunge Jolts Hunts' Empire And Brings Turmoil to Wall Street, Fears of Sell-Off of Metal Depress Stock Prices and Pose Threat to Broker.
The front page of the New York Times on March 28, 1980 with a headline about Silver Thursday and the Hunt brothers. It reads, Silver's Plunge Jolts Hunts' Empire And Brings Turmoil to Wall Street, Fears of Sell-Off of Metal Depress Stock Prices and Pose Threat to Broker.
Jeffrey Williams, who wrote "Manipulation on Trial: Economy Analysis and the Hunt Silver Case," says lots of people lost money. But reforms? Not so much.
"The more time has passed," says Williams, who is a professor of agricultural and resource economics at UC-Davis, "the more I'm forced to conclude that the case did not have much effect on the way we regulate commodity markets."
Jim Stone, who chaired the Commodity Futures Trading Commission at the time, today said the silver crisis "nearly torpedoed top financial institutions in much the same way mortgage derivatives did in 2008." The Hunts were highly leveraged, and that problem, Stone says, remains "unfixed" and "the lesson unlearned."
Ottawa was in lockdown after a shooting at the Canadian Parliament building and a war memorial Wednesday morning. A soldier and one suspect were killed, the CBC reported. Details are scarce, but Vox has a summary of what's confirmed and unconfirmed as of late Wednesday morning. Another useful reference: the breaking news consumer's handbook from "On the Media."
As we wait to learn more, here are the stories we're reading — and some numbers we're watching — Wednesday.17
That's how many Pulitzers the Washington Post won under the leadership of Ben Bradlee, who served as editor for 26 years and died Tuesday at age 93. Bradlee lead the Washington Post during the Watergate scandal and the publication of the Pentagon papers, and he's credited with elevating the Post to one of the top newspapers in the country.11 out of 20
According to the Federal Reserve, that's how many banks totally failed to meet the last big chunk of Dodd-Frank rules, in part because they weren’t thorough enough or made mistakes in their reporting. It's why some are turning to a computer program called the Volcker Assistant. It is, for all intents and purposes, like a Turbo Tax for banks trying to comply with financial regulations.40 percent
Four in 10 people surveyed by Pew Research said they've experienced harassment online. A little less than half of those — 18 percent of all Internet users — said that harassment went on longer, or involved physical threats, sexual harassment or stalking.
The giant Russian oil company was bankrupted almost a decade ago after the oligarch owner – Mikhail Khodorkovsky — clashed politically with President Vladimir Putin. Khodorkovksy was stripped of his shares, jailed, and had his company carved up and taken under state control.
Could something similar be happening to Vladimir Yevtushenkov, billionaire owner of telecom, tourism and oil giant Sistema?
Another oligarch – who’s much closer to Putin and runs the state-energy company Rosneft — made Yevtushenkov an offer for his oil interests. Yevtushenkov deemed the offer derisory and refused and is now paying the price. Under house arrest, he’s facing prosecution for fraud and money laundering.
In one crucial respect, Yevtushenkov is very different from the Yukos boss.
“He is widely regarded as a figure who is loyal to the authorities in Russia, he’s never previously stepped out of line.” says John Lough of the Chatham House think tank. “ He’s never criticized the Putin administration to my knowledge. It’s very striking that a figure so loyal to the system, has been put in this situation.”
Lawyer and Kremlin watcher Jamison Firestone is not surprised that Yevtushenkov has fallen foul of President Putin and his close associates.
“He’s got something they want. And they want to take it. It’s pretty simple.” says Firestone. “ Like in the Soviet Union, there is no such thing as private property in Russia today. You own stuff while they allow you to own it.”
Firestone knows more than most about such shenanigans. He fled Moscow after his colleague Sergei Magnitsky died in custody after allegedly uncovering high level corruption.
The attempted asset grab against Yevtushenkov could be an encouraging sign for the West. It could suggest that the EU and U.S. sanctions levied against Russia over Ukraine are biting and the oligarchs are starting to fight over their dwindling assets.
“The pie is no longer growing and therefore the fights over particular portions can become more excessive.’ says Nick Redman of the International Institute for Strategic Studies.
But this may be more than a case of greedy oligarchs squabbling over their loot, with Putin backing a close associate. Lough says Putin many have singled out the unoffending Yevtushenkov for political reasons, and as a preemptive example.
“There are some Russian business people who interpret this as a sign to business from Mr Putin that says : ‘you may be unhappy about what’s happening at the moment with the sanctions, you may be feeling a degree of pain, but don’t think of stepping out of line.’ ”
It’s a risky tactic. It could backfire, claims Firestone, it could alienate all the oligarchs in the outer circle and eventually lead to the President’s toppling. This could be curtains for Putin.
“Most of Russian transitions in power happen the following way: you wake up and “Swan Lake” is playing on every single official channel. And then you know something has happened.” Firestone says. “A few hours later when they figure out the official story somebody gets on TV and tells us who the new leadership is .”
But –after the annexation of Crimea - the Russian leader’s public approval rating soared and now stands at around 80 percent. In contrast, all the oligarchs are universally loathed. So the humbling of Yevtushenkov is likely to be popular with ordinary Russians. It still could be some years before Putin has his “Swan Lake moment”.
Picture a mortgage, and you're likely imagining a down payment of 20 percent of the price of the house.
"I think the 20 percent down payment has become the default, no pun intended," says Jonathan Miller, president of Miller Samuel Real Estate Appraisers and Consultants. "To many homeowners, I think it symbolizes a commitment."
The requirements of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac — the government-backed entities that support the vast majority of new mortgages — are the most obvious reasons the standard applies today.
"Under Fannie and Freddie's rules, you can get a lower down payment mortgage, but that then requires extra payment in the form of mortgage insurance," says Susan Wachter, professor of real estate and finance at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School.
The history of that requirement dates back to the Great Depression. According to Wachter, before the 1930s most mortgages were short-term and non-amortizing: a home buyer had to either pay off the whole house in a lump sum after a few years, or roll over the loan at a new interest rate. Down payments, on the other hand, were typically more than 30 percent.
After the resulting foreclosure crisis and construction halt — similar to what happened after the recent financial crisis — the government created the Federal Housing Administration, which backed mortgages, but required a 20 percent down payment. After World War II, the Department of Veterans Affairs and the FHA adopted a 30-year, fixed-rate standard. By the mid '50s, most mortgages fit that description.
But 30-year, fixed-rate, 20 percent-down loans weren't strictly the result of government-sponsored enterprises, or GSEs.
"When I bought my first home it was $22,000 and I had to put 20 percent down, and it was a conventional loan," says Chris Polychron, president-elect of the National Association of Realtors. "The conventional lenders mimicked what the GSEs did."
Since the 1950s, 20 percent has remained the average down payment — with the exception of the run-up to the financial crisis in 2008. But how did 20 percent become that dividing line in the first place, back in the 1930s? As with so much of our economic life, it’s anybody’s guess.
"I would speculate if you scored 80 percent, you’re a B-minus student, and I guess that means you’re above average," says Miller. "So maybe that has something to do with it."
Johnson & Johnson is the latest pharmaceutical firm to say it will join the race to find a vaccine for Ebola. The firm has even been talking with rival GlaxoSmithKline about ways to collaborate to speed up development.
That urgency speaks to the idea that while the epidemic is well under control in the U.S., it’s out of control in West Africa, where the World Health Organization reports nearly 1,000 people have been infected in just the past week.
“What you are seeing is a collaboration among industry, a collaboration with governments, a collaboration among charities to address what is becoming a horrific public health crisis,” says GSK’s Donna Altenpohl.
Until recently, developing a vaccine wasn’t viewed as lucrative in the industry. But Adel Mahmoud, former President of Merck Vaccines says the power of this virus is persuasive.
“What has changed today is failure of almost all control methods that we now exist,” he says.
Mahmoud says with public health efforts like quarantine and containment falling short it’s now obvious a vaccine is essential. With millions of Africans in need as well as medical workers worldwide, Mahmoud says it’s clear there’s a huge market.
It’s not clear how profitable that market will be. But believe it or not, that’s a secondary concern right now to drug makers, says USC economist Joel Hay.
“They hope if they develop good vaccines they can be compensated at some point. But I don’t think they are doing this out of a profit motive, they are doing it because they believe it’s the right thing to do,” he says.
Certainly down the road, the company that comes up with a vaccine first could score a major public relations win. But right now, Hay says, nobody – including the drug makers – stand to benefit if Ebola spreads beyond West Africa.
“Just think what would happen if people though that airplanes were not safe to fly in. the economy could be devastated very quickly,” he says.
Hay says for pharmaceutical companies in the business of making people better it’s gut check time.
The official rulebook that allows federal employees paid time off has a very long list of legitimate reasons to miss work and still get paid. Perhaps you're donating blood? Maybe an organ? Or you have to go to a Boy or Girl Scout jamboree?
But what if you're accused of a crime or of misbehavior in the workplace, and are in the process of an investigation? In that case, stay home...and still get paid. The total number of workers on paid administrative leave? Well that's a number that the government does not track.
"The real tension point here, I think is that they end up being at home for months, and in many cases years, while their cases are investigated," says Washington Post reporter Lisa Rein.
Listen to the full conversation in the audio player above.
This morning, the U.S. Labor Department released the latest Consumer Price Index. That indicator of inflation was up only slightly. More on that. And banks have about nine months until they'll have to comply with what's called The Volcker Rule. That's the part of Dodd-Frank that's named after Paul Volcker, the former Federal Reserve chairman. The Volcker Rule says banks cannot own hedge funds or invest for their own benefit. They'll have to stick to helping their customers make money. Simple as it may sound, the Volcker Rule is incredibly complex. But banks have a new tool to help them implement it.
Everybody’s focused on the races for Senate seats in the November election. But it turns out more money is being spent on TV ads in gubernatorial races. All you have to do is look at the numbers.
“As of the 9th of October, to date we have about $426 million spent on gubernatorial campaign ads," says Michael Franz, a professor of government at Bowdoin College and co-director of the Wesleyan Media Project, which also tracks spending on TV ads for Senate campaigns this election. Franz says about $337 million has been spent on Senate races — $90 million less than the spending on gubernatorial races.
Why? Franz says the tightest Senate contests are in relatively cheap media markets, like Iowa. But money is also pouring into the governors’ races because of the gridlock in Washington.
“People think governors can get something done," says Allan Lichtman, a history professor at American University. "They have no hope that anything is going to get done in the congress, which has approval ratings lower than Attila the Hun.”
The result? Almost 22,000 TV ads in a recent two-week period, in just the gubernatorial race in Florida.
Donald Lamson points to a red and blue maze on a screen at law firm Shearman and Sterling.
“This is a maze,” says Donald Lamson, a partner at Shearman and Sterling. “It’s a metaphor to reflect the complexity that institutions must go through as they encounter an increasingly bewildering array of regulatory requirements they must deal with.”
Banks have until July 21, 2015, to follow one of those requirements, the Volcker Rule.
That is the part of Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act that says banks can’t own hedge funds or invest for their own benefit; they have to stick to just helping their customers make money.
“I wrote the first draft,” Lamson recalls, “which was a page and a half.”
It is not, however, a page and a half anymore.
“The final regulation implementing the Volcker Rule has ballooned to several hundred pages of small type in the federal register,” he says. There are hundreds of footnotes, some of them quite detailed.
50...000 SHADES OF GRAY
There are also a great many gray areas and exceptions for when activities are allowed or not allowed, says Mike Konczal, a fellow with the Roosevelt Institute.
“Volcker and Dodd-Frank wanted to make sure that banks could still do what we want them to do — interact with clients, do market making, buy and sell things for their clients — and what happens is a lot of that activity kind of blurs with proprietary trading,” he says. Another reason the rules have become complicated is that, simply put, a lot of people have sued. The rules have had to become extra detailed to pass scrutiny.
"These rules from Dodd-Frank have come under extensive criticism in the courts,” says Konczal. “We want that kind of scrutiny it’s important to have it, but it’s become so obsessive and so burdensome that it’s actually made the rules a lot clunkier than they need to be.”
SIRI... YOOHOO...OH, SIRI?
For banks with hundreds of billions of dollars in thousands of different funds, compliance is a massive undertaking. This summer, the Federal Reserve said 11 out of 20 banks totally failed to meet the last big chunk of Dodd-Frank rules, in part because they weren’t thorough enough or made mistakes in their reporting. In some instances, some financial institutions had a 70% error rate according to Robert Marks, CEO of Casewise Financial Solutions and Lamson’s business partner.
Lamson and Marks’ solution: a computer program, called the Volcker Assistant. It is, for all intents and purposes, like a Turbo Tax for banks trying to comply with financial regulations.
Step by step, the software leads Lamson — who would in the real world be likely hundreds of different people across a large company from a fund manager on up to an auditor — through an assessment of which investments pass legal muster and which do not. A lawyer signs off at the end.
Once the program figures out whether a bank is following the rules, it remains as “a management tool”, says Lamson — calculating legal exposure based on changing circumstances (a credit downgrade, for example).
There is at least one other such automated legal compliance tool on the market, called the Volcker Portal by firm Davis Polk.
“Software use has just not penetrated in the legal profession as it has in other professions at this point such as banking for example where it really has saturated the space,” says Lamson.
“Lawyers have a way, if they want to, of obfuscating, where the answer to so many questions begins with, 'it depends.' It’s used as a device to preserve options,” he says. “Digitizing and rendering into computer based format removes those options. And as a result, the fear among lawyers is that they will become less relevant to the process when actually they will become even more relevant.”
LAWYERS WILL STILL HAVE JOBS
History may prove Lamson right. One section of law where digital tools have penetrated more successfully is in discovery — searching through documents for evidence before a law suit gets going. Highly sophisticated algorithmic tools that could search documents better and faster began gaining prominence several years ago, and raised the specter of lawyers losing jobs to software programs.
“Just a few years ago, we had hyperbolic headlines of ‘will computers replace your lawyer?’ and there seemed to be a fear among lawyers of technology and what it might do to the legal profession,” says David Horrigan, an analyst and counsel for information governance at 451 Research. That fear has not come to pass, he says. “That fear is still the case with a lot of lawyers, but a lot of law firms are embracing it,” he says.
Teams of junior lawyers may not be digging through boxes of paper as they once did, but lawyers are still needed to work with the data and legal questions that digital tools raise.
“The law is changing,” says Horrigan. “But as far as trying a case you’re not gonna see Watson before the Supreme Court any time soon.”
A report from the U.S. Government Accountability Office says that lifting 40-year-old restrictions on exporting U.S. crude oil could drive down gasoline prices at home. The idea is that more oil on the world market means lower prices.
However, the report was written more than a month ago — That is, before world oil prices, and U.S. gasoline prices, went down sharply on their own. It's worth asking if those declines change the equation.
In a way, U.S. crude is already affecting world markets, by reducing U.S. imports. That leaves oil exporters like Nigeria looking for takers and lowering their prices. So, do world markets really want U.S. crude right now?
"Nobody can be certain," says energy consultant Geoffrey Styles. "We’re really exploring new territory here. The new crudes that have brought all this about came to the market when prices were pretty high. These are not-inexpensive crudes to get out of the ground."
So, it might not be worthwhile for U.S. drillers to increase production if world prices stay low.
Which is still an if.
"I don’t think anyone knows what the price of oil will be in a year," says Michael Levi, senior fellow for energy and the environment at the Council on Foreign Relations. "The big news in the oil markets is not just lower prices — it’s the return of volatility, and volatility works in both directions."
Either way, it’s not an argument for keeping the export ban. "In the worst case," he says, "relaxing the ban doesn't do anything."
Women with bachelor's degrees in the humanities earn less than men in other majors, according to a report by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The Golden Arches are losing their luster - McDonald's reported that its profits fell by 30 percent.
McDonald’s problems right now are complicated, says Jennifer Bartashus, an analyst at Bloomberg Intelligence. She says we should start by looking at the company's target market.
“The customer profile still remains people who are in the lower income, lower-middle-income bracket,” Bratashus says.
These folks haven’t recovered from the recession and are still looking for bargains. McDonald’s problem? Meat and cheese prices are rising, which means its prices are too.
At the same time, McDonald’s is also trying to respond to changing consumer tastes by adding healthier, more expensive options - like salads and parfaits - to its menu.
“They’ve tried to be something for everyone as opposed to being everything for some people,” Bratashus says.
“I think the perception among many consumers is that it’s a fresher product and better quality,” Goldin says of the rival chains. He adds that these restaurants often cost just a few bucks more than some of the meals you find at McDonald's.
John Gordon is an analyst at Pacific Management Consulting Group and he says McDonald’s is losing ground with another group: millennials. He says they like restaurants that let you customize your order. And McDonald's has missed this trend, in part, because of its corporate culture.
“They’re such an insular group,” Gordon says. “They tend to think more about what the corporation wants rather than maybe what the customer wants.”
McDonald's' CEO Don Thompson admitted the company has to play catch-up. It’s starting by piloting menus that let you build your own burger at a few Southern California restaurants.
As we discovered, McDona'd strategy has... changed... over time. These needed to go somewhere:
Age starting dance: 13
Height: 5 feet 2 inches
Bust: "Bigger than most"
At least, that's how ballerina Misty Copeland describes her numbers-defying career in dance. A soloist with the American Ballet Theater in New York, Copeland recently explained how she doesn't really fit into the traditional model for ballet, but still made it work.
“All of those numbers, they just don’t add up to create a classical dancer,” she says. "No matter what, I'm going to be who I am."
Listen to the full conversation from our live show in New York City in the audio player above.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is urging drivers of more than 4.7 million cars to get their air bags fixed immediately. The warning affects various models manufactured by Honda, Toyota, Nissan, Mazda, BMW and GM, ranging between the years 2000-2007 for most, and to 2011 for the Honda Element.
You can look up your car by VIN number to see if it is affected.
The warning is mostly of recalls that have been previously issued, but the safety agency took the unusual step of issuing an alert to get drivers who may be complacent about recalls to pay attention.
"Responding to these recalls is essential for their personal safety and it will help aid our ongoing investigation," David Friedman, deputy administrator of the agency, said in a statement. "At this point, the issue appears to be a problem related to extended exposure to consistently high humidity and temperatures."
Humidity can apparently destabilize the explosives that are part of the airbag system and are used to quickly inflate the bags in an accident. That could cause apparently defective air bags manufactured by the Japanese supplier Takata, which were installed by 11 automakers worldwide, to explode and send shrapnel at drivers.
Investigators are looking into four deaths that could be linked to the defect. And officials are focusing their recall efforts first on humid regions of the country, including Florida and Hawaii.
"Safety is our top priority and we want to ensure that consumers respond to the 2013 and 2014 regional recalls," Friedman said.
Globally, the airbag recalls date from 2008 and involve 14 million vehicles — the sheer scale of which has overwhelmed recall efforts.
"It complicates things because so many manufacturers and models are affected when one supplier supplies that many cars," says Jack Nerad, executive market analyst for Kelley Blue Book.
Takata is the second largest of only a handful of airbag suppliers.
Adding to that complication, Takata has not had to supply a huge stock of replacement parts, says Nerad, because air bags are designed to be installed in a vehicle and never be touched again.
"So it doesn't make sense that there be tons of replacement parts out there, because these air bag systems are typically not replaced," Nerad says.
Now that they have to be replaced at such a large scale, it's been difficult for car companies to keep up. Toyota is temporarily disabling passenger-side airbags in some cars and urging customers not to drive affected cars until the airbags are replaced.
The difficulties with the recalls stem from auto companies' reliance on a few suppliers for their parts. That's because there has been a consolidation of auto parts suppliers over the last 20 years, says Micheline Maynard, author of the books "Curbing Cars" and "The End of Detroit."
"Suppliers were fighting each other for business, and undercutting each other on prices, and literally were going out of business, because they couldn't build products cheap enough," Maynard says.
And while that's been good for surviving companies, it's also led to huge market exposure, as Takata is now finding out. The company says it expects a net loss of $220 million in the current fiscal year.
China’s GDP increased by only 7.3 percent in the third quarter this year. While that's a figure many countries would kill to have, it’s relatively slow for China – in fact, it’s the lowest quarterly figure in five years.
Of course, China’s not alone; Europe is in the midst of a slowdown, too. So which stalling economy is a greater threat to our own, here in the U.S.? On the one hand, China is the world’s second largest economy, but Europe is an important trading partner.
“If I was picking, I’d be picking Europe,” says Kent Smetters, professor of business economics and public policy at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School.
Smetters says Europe tends to purchase high-margin goods from the U.S., such as machines.
“With China, not only is it a much smaller trading relationship, the margins that we get with what we’re trading is a lot different,” he says. “Our biggest export, for example, is soy beans.”
Slower economic growth in China matters to the U.S. less than a slowdown Europe, agrees Gary Hufbauer, a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. In addition to exports, Europe can also impact our stock markets, he says.
“Things look depressed in Europe,” he says. “So European shares are cheaper, so that’s going to ripple over U.S. shares because some investors will say, ‘Well, let’s buy those cheap European shares instead of the more expensive U.S. shares.’”
Hufbauer says Europe has been dragged down by the debt of its countries and a lack of agreement about how to combat sluggish growth. He doesn’t expect that to change any time soon.
On the other hand, China’s slowdown is at least partially by design of its leaders, says Nicholas Consonery, the Asia director at the Eurasia Group. So while many investors are fearful of the slowdown, he says, “It’s very clear that transitioning into a phase of slower, more sustainable growth is a healthy – and not just healthy, but also necessary adjustment for China.”
Consonery says a more stable China, with stronger consumer spending, could actually be good for the U.S. in the long term.
Morgan Spurlock is hoping to demystify the economy with a new series of short films he's calling "We the Economy: 20 Short Films You Can't Afford to Miss."
"I think we live in a country and we live in a time where a lot of us are economically illiterate," Spurlock says. "Our eyes glass over, we start to go into a slump when we hear about derivatives or market fluctuations or the Federal Reserve. And I think having a basic understanding of how these things work and how they impact our lives is important. It's important for the citizenry, it's important for our communities, it's important for our country."
Watch the first film here:
What's the material of the future? Titanium? Silicon? Maybe some rare metal used in electronics? Those materials will no doubt play increasingly larger roles in our lives. But arguably, the most important substance in the development of civilization has been — and will continue to be — concrete.
Take China, for example. It has poured more concrete in the past six years than America poured in the past 300.
Making concrete takes a ton of energy. As much as 10 percent of global CO2 emissions come from the production of concrete. So scientists and engineers are looking to reduce its environmental impact.
It's really just one ingredient that's responsible for its high carbon emissions: cement.
"The cement is just the glue that holds the other elements together," says Robert Courland, the author of "Concrete Planet." To make cement, limestone and a few other ingredients are put into a big kiln, and the temperature is fired up to about 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit, which produces lots of CO2.
"It's been estimated, that producing one ton of cement generates one ton of CO2," Courland says. "Since we are producing around 4 billion tons of concrete cement per year worldwide, that's very, very troubling."
Concrete is the most common man-made material on earth. So if its CO2 emissions could be reduced by even a tiny fraction, the environmental impact would be huge. A group of scientists at MIT announced in a recent paper they've found a way to reduce CO2 emissions of cement by more than half.
"We have developed a set of experiments measuring the mechanical properties at the sub-micron or big-nano level," says Roland Pellenq, one of the authors.
His cement research is like a Russian doll, Pellenq says, the kind where a tiny doll rests inside a larger doll which rests inside a larger doll, etc. Pellenq and his colleagues study the properties of cement at the atomic level — the smallest possible doll. They do atomic-simulations, basically experimenting with different ratios of the elements in cement. Then they scale up those simulations until they have a new recipe.
This idea came from scientists at Corning who used a similar approach to invent Gorilla Glass -- the super tough, scratch resistant glass often used for screens on smartphones.
"So here we tried to do the same approach for cement," says Mathieu Bauchy, who also worked on the MIT paper.
Bauchy recently moved from Cambridge to Los Angeles to work at UCLA. In a basement lab below his office, engineers and chemists use Bauchy's atomic-scale simulations to make concrete cubes that they measure, weigh and smash.
UCLA student Gabe Falzoni takes a gray cube of concrete, about the size of a Rubik's Cube, and puts it in a cage. He lowers a metal cylinder on top of the cube and slowly ratchets up the pressure. When a cube breaks, it can be so loud that it jars the people in the office on the other side of the wall.
The display on the machine shows the pressure in kilonewtons. It climbs steadily 20kN...40kN...70kN...90kN...100kN... brace myself waiting for a violent explosion. And then, the cube crumbles sadly and quietly, like an Egyptian pyramid deteriorating slowly over hundreds of years.
"That happens sometimes," says Falzoni, removing the shattered bits of concrete from the cage.
The final number: 121 kN, about seventeen and a half pounds per square inch. I ask Falzoni if he would drive on a bridge that strong. "If it was designed right," he answers.
The goal of these experiments is two-fold: to develop cement that uses less limestone, which is the easiest way to cut concrete emissions, and to create stronger concrete. Stronger concrete means builders could use less of it — also cutting CO2 emissions.
But for builders to use concrete developed by this lab, it has to have another very important quality. It has to be cheap.
"That's really the key," Bauchy says. "You cannot expect the industry to change to a greener material if this greener material is not the same price, or cheaper than original material."
The only way to make new concrete competitive is to take into account the cost of the CO2 released and charge a carbon tax on it, Bauchy says, or government could mandate the use of greener materials. Those policies would be politically difficult to enact. Greener concrete is not high on the priority list of voters, especially in developing nations where progress is often measured by the amount of freshly poured concrete.
The CDC has released updated and stricter guidelines to keep frontline healthcare workers safe in the face of potential Ebola cases. The move comes after two nurses were infected with Ebola who treating Thomas Duncan in a Dallas hospital and the CDC’s oversight was questioned.
Hospitals across the country are now ramping up training efforts, but will they be sufficient enough to calm an uneasy workforce? When nurse Jessica Berney goes to work these days she sees something she’s not used to.
“You see these stacks of these plastic bags that have the personal protection equipment in it, and it’s kind of like an anticipation of something bad is going happen. Something big and something bad,” she says.
Not only are the stacks of gear new, that feeling the dread that Berney says has crept into the California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco, that’s new too.
“Is this going to be enough? Is this going to protect me,” she says.
At this point, it’s clear if the disease were to spread beyond the two current cases, the people most at risk of contracting Ebola in the U.S. are healthcare workers -- in particular, nurses and orderlies are the people most likely to come into contact with patient fluids.
The guidelines released by the CDC are aimed at many of these workers. But you can have all the protocols you want, a room stuffed with gear and Johns Hopkins' Dr. Daniel Barnett says you still may have staff scared stiff. He says he worries hospitals right now are making the same assumption he made about a decade ago.
“That people would be willing to come to work, regardless of scenario, regardless of context, regardless of personal and professional obligations given,” he says.
But his work in the field he calls psychological preparedness proved him wrong.
“We found that a third of hospital workers indicated they would be unwilling to show up in a severe pandemic. You can think of a severe influenza pandemic in terms of the fear in some ways as a proxy for what we are talking about with regards to Ebola,” he says.
Barnett, through a randomized controlled, found if employers educate their employees about how they fit into the plan to fight the public health threat, those workers are 12 times more likely to clock in.
But National Nurses United union president Deborah Burger says before any of that, you’ve got to remember some hospitals aren’t even covering the basics yet.
“They are not even supplying the equipment to allay the fears of the healthcare workers,” she says.
Burger says her members are urging President Obama to make CDC’s guidelines mandatory. With some 5,000 hospitals she worries about a patchwork of practices that could leave workers at risk and scared.
For less than $10, you can order Ebola online and take it home — not the disease itself but rather, a cuddly, worm-shaped mock up of the virus.
"GIANT Microbes" are stuffed animals that resemble tiny microbes, only at one million times their actual size. The website says the characters are designed to be “appealing personalities” which can engage any audience. And yes, there is one for Ebola.
The toys are based on a real microscopic image of an actual microbe, sans the googly eyes. The Ebola virus plush sells for $9.95, but is currently sold out. There are also "gigantic" and Petri dish versions of the toy.
The Ebola doll has a positive five-star review on the website, which calls the disease the “T. Rex of microbes." Reviewers note the toy is the "perfect prop" for a Halloween costume, with others commenting they didn't realize the virus was "so cute."
McDonald's and Coca-Cola both reported disappointing earnings Tuesday morning, with 30 percent and 14 percent drops in revenue respectively. Both companies saw declining sales in the U.S. and Europe, and the fast food chain is still grappling with a scandal in China.
Here are some more stories we're reading, and other numbers we're watching, Tuesday.5
Oscar Pistorius was sentenced to five years in prison for killing his girlfriend, Reeva Steenkamp, last year. Pistorius' lawyer said the Olympian could only serve 10 months before being placed under house arrest. The sentence was handed down by the second black woman to become a high court judge in South Africa, Thokozile Masipa.7
The number of YouTube stars appearing in a new collaboration between Google and Lionsgate to promote the studio's new "Hunger Games" movie, AdAge reported. It's a high-profile push into branded entertainment for YouTube, and just the latest example of a big corporation exploring the value of Internet celebrities.$50 million
That's how much Kansas City could potentially make once business from the run-up to the World Series and the games themselves are all totaled. But other expenses, like the $225,000 parade thrown by San Francisco when the Giants won in 2012, have some questioning whether the costs involved in hosting a large sporting event mean the benefits are more modest than projected.2
That's how many "Notorious R.B.G." shirts Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg has given to NPR correspondent Nina Totenberg. Ginsberg is apparently relishing in her meme status, and has collected "quite a large supply" of the shirts.