The populist president was an ally of dictators like Cuba's Fidel Castro and loudly opposed the United States. Chavez claimed capitalism was destroying the world and tried to transform Venezuela into a socialist state.
The government of Venezuela announced today that President Hugo Chavez died at the age of 58.
Marketplace's Scott Tong reported on Chavez's legacy back in January. "Early on in his administration, Chavez took control of biggest piece of the economy: oil," Tong reported.
"He ran the place," Tong said today. "And several people I talked to said the Chavez model goes to the grave with him."
Read Tong's story on the economics of Chavez here.
Chávez, one of Washington's most intransigent adversaries, had served as the Venezuelan president since 1999.
Fred Butler has done many things in his 106 years, from serving in two military theaters of World War II to helping raise five children. But he had never gone to high school, or earned a diploma — the result of leaving school after the eighth grade to work full-time in a print shop to help support his family.
James Angel, who teaches finance at Georgetown’s McDonough School of Business, says it all depends on what you did when the market dropped.
“If you panicked and sold when the market went down you probably bought high and sold low, so you’re out of luck,” he says. If on the other hand, you viewed the dip in the market as a buying opportunity, “you’re probably really happy today.”
But, before you get overly excited, consider what Jeremy Siegel, who teaches finance at Wharton, has to say: “The Dow is not the whole market.”
And Siegel notes that only a little over half of Americans own stock. According to a Gallup poll, that’s down from 65 percent of the country before the recession.
Matt Coffina, editor of Morningstar’s newsletter, StockInvestor, says when it comes to concerns about investments, many Americans’ thoughts don’t stray far from home.
“For the typical household, the value of their house probably matters more to their personal wealth than the value of their stock holdings,” he says.
Coffina says that in terms of people’s well-being, even more important than their investments, is their income. But he points out that in general, household income has been stagnant for the last five years. Today’s Dow reflects corporate profits growing much more quickly then household income.
“Unless you’re Mitt Romney, I don’t think you’re feeling all that wealthy, or all that well off,” he says.
But good news for the 50 percent of Americans who do own stock can means good news for the rest of the country. If investors feel better about their wealth, they’re more likely to spend it.
We asked you on social media how the Dow's high has affected you, if at all. Here's what you said:
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Despite market euphoria today, one could quibble about the Dow closing at an all-time high. The index isn't inflation-adjusted. It's just 30 big companies. So as economic indicators go, the 117-year-old index has its problems.
Turn your gaze away from the skyward green arrow on Dow graphics and you see a broader economy that’s a rather mixed bag for ordinary Americans. The positive news of rising home prices mingles with a murky job picture and payroll tax hike.
“Put it together and you have an economy that’s still moving forward,” says Mesirow Financial chief economist Diane Swonk. “But it certainly isn’t booming, and the Dow would leave you feeling as if everything’s booming.”
She adds that much of the corporate profit fueling stock surges is not from strong sales or overall economic strength, but company’s slashing budgets. The stock markets are also up because the Fed has been flooding the economy with cheap money.
Even if the much-hyped Dow ultimately presents a rather limited picture, it can have a psychological impact. The wealth effect is the economic concept that when share prices go up, people will spend more because they feel richer. When the Dow smashes through a barrier, it could open wealthy wallets a little wider.
“There is an impact, there’s no question about it,” says Wichita State University economics professor William Miles, who researches the wealth effect.
Miles adds that it’s felt strongest among high earners, those who tend to have more wealth in stocks. It’s worth nothing that not all economists believe the wealth effect has a major impact.
One place where Dow milestones absolutely always have an impact is CNBC. Broken records are heralded with extensive coverage and flashy graphics. The network plans ahead for big Dow days, even if it can’t predict them.
“We’re always preparing,” says Nik Deogun, the network's senior vice president and editor-in-chief of business news. “Obviously, the days you prepare for it usually aren’t the days it happens.”
When it does happen, like Tuesday, he says it gets “adrenaline and energy” flowing on set and in the newsroom.
“People know that they’re playing on a big stage and they wanna do the best job possible at moments when there are more people watching,” Deogun says.
There’s a lot the Dow doesn’t tell us about the broader economy. But it does put on a good show.
Kai Ryssdal: One could quibble -- should one choose -- about the close on the Dow today. It's not inflation-adjusted, some will say. It's just 30 companies, after all.
So as economic indicators go, the Dow has its problems. But it is worth a moment -- 90 seconds perhaps -- to consider what it does mean. To put a 117-year-old market index into some modern-day context. Marketplace's Mark Garrison drew the short straw today.
Mark Garrison: Turn your gaze away from the skyward green arrow on Dow graphics and you see a broader economy that’s a rather mixed bag for ordinary Americans. Among the positives: rising home prices. On the negative end, a murky job picture and payroll tax hike.
Diane Swonk: Put it together and you have an economy that’s still moving forward, but it certainly isn’t booming and the Dow would leave you feeling as if everything’s booming.
Mesirow Financial chief economist Diane Swonk points out that much of the corporate profit fueling stock surges is not from strong sales, but budget cutting.
Swonk: We don’t want to see profits from cost-cutting alone. We wanna see profits from improvements in the economy.
The stock markets are also up because the Fed has been flooding the economy with cheap money. When share prices go up, there’s an idea in economics that people will spend more because they feel richer. That’s called the wealth effect, something Wichita State economist William Miles specializes in.
William Miles: There is an impact, there’s no question about it. I think it tends to be concentrated on people in the upper income brackets, because they’re the ones that own the most stock.
So a rising Dow could open wealthy wallets a little wider. It’s worth nothing, not all economists think the wealth effect has a major impact. One place where Dow milestones absolutely always have an impact: CNBC.
Nik Deogun is the network’s Editor in Chief.
Nik Deogun: We’re always preparing and, obviously, the days you prepare for it usually aren’t the days it happens.
When it does happen, like today, he says it gets the adrenaline flowing on set.
Deogun: People know that they’re playing on a big stage and they wanna do the best job possible at moments when there are more people watching.
There’s a lot the Dow doesn’t tell us about the broader economy. But it does put on a good show. In New York, I'm Mark Garrison, for Marketplace.