National News

What brings people to cities with unhappy residents?

Marketplace - American Public Media - Mon, 2014-07-14 04:00

Happiness happens where it's warm. According to a new study by Harvard Professor of economics, Ed Glaeser, Southern cities like Charlottsville, Virginia, Lafayette, Louisiana, and Naples, Florida, are among the happiest in the country.

"Though Rochester, Minnesota, also ranks way up there on our list," Glaeser says.

Then there are the glass half-empty metropoli. Glaeser notes that some cities in the Rust Belt, like South Bend, Indiana, and Erie and Scranton, Pennsylvania, have had high levels of self-reported unhappiness as far back as the 1940's. In their boom years at least, he says workers there were paid high wages, but no longer. Today he notes, for some workers in the Rust Belt the payoff comes in the form of cheap housing. But city residents aren't driven entirely by happiness, says Glaeser.

"They’re willing to take other compensations for being a little less happy," he says.

New York also registers as an unhappy city. Glaeser says some workers there trade high salaries for happiness.

Kelly Goldsmith, a professor of marketing at Northwestern’s Kellogg School of Management, says when it comes to making decisions, we're just no good at making happiness a priority.

"You say to yourself, all right, I’ve got this job offer from Goldman Sachs. I know I’m going to be working like 16 hours day. I know I’m never going to see my kids and I know when I visited there and when I talked to the people that worked there – they said they were miserable. But what do we tell ourselves? We say, that’s not going to happen to me," she says. 

But Goldsmith notes, we’re not idiots – we’re optimists, even if there's no real hope to cling to.

"We’re naïve in that we think that we’re strong enough to overcome situational detriments to our happiness," she says.

Cassie Mogilner, a professor of marketing at Wharton, says residents of different cities might report happiness differently.

“I'm actually from California, where the norm is to talk about the wonderful things of one’s life and to rose color everything including their own well-being and happiness,” she says.

And she notes, the conclusion that people are being financially compensated by lower housing costs, or by being paid to live in in unhappy places, could be an over reach. It's possible, says Mogilner, that there's another way to think about factors like choosing a higher paying job, or a lower mortage, which could provide the ability to raise a family.

"These are things people are choosing in order to be happy, not instead of being happy."













Citigroup Agrees To Pay $7 Billion To Resolve Mortgage Probe

NPR News - Mon, 2014-07-14 03:40

The deal frees Citi from potential liability for collateralized debt obligations as well as mortgage-backed securities issued, structured or underwritten by the company between 2003 and 2008.

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Costa Concordia Cruise Ship Floats Again, After 2 Years

NPR News - Mon, 2014-07-14 03:05

Salvage workers plan to move the Costa Condordia from the spot of its deadly wreck off the Italian coast this week. The ship will eventually be used for scrap.

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PODCAST: Sotheby's and eBay team up

Marketplace - American Public Media - Mon, 2014-07-14 03:00

Second time's the charm? After a failed joint venture back 2002, eBay and Sotheby's are trying a second partnership to take advantage of the middle luxury market. Plus, more on why GM is choosing to pay for claims related to faulty ignition switches with cash instead of insurance. Also, the signature sound of a racecar might be about to change. That's because of a new kind of electric vehicle set to debut during the Formula E World Championship, which will feature exclusively electric racing cars.

LA Smog: the battle against air pollution

Marketplace - American Public Media - Mon, 2014-07-14 02:16

When we see photos of Beijing shrouded in a veil of thick smog, we’re horrified. How can the Chinese live with such terrible air pollution?

One answer is: Americans did. Back in the 1950s and '60s, people in Los Angeles breathed some of the dirtiest air in the world.

Los Angeles still has smog, of course, but it’s not nearly as bad as it used to be. How did the city get its act together?

It took decades. Los Angeles had its first real smog attack during World War II, a smog strong enough that some people suspected a Japanese chemical attack. But it wasn’t until 1975 that the U.S. required new cars to have catalytic converters, “the key piece of technology that allowed everything to change,” according to Mary Nichols, chairman of California’s Air Resources Board. In between, there were frustrating years of scientific research, industry denial, politics, protest and an unwavering attachment to the automobile.

Los Angeles, like Denver and Mexico City, is a natural pollution trap. The surrounding mountains combine with temperature inversions to trap dirty air. Early on, smoke and fumes from steel and chemical plants, oil refineries and backyard trash incinerators - legal until the late 1950s - plagued the city.

As did pollution from automobiles. Los Angeles County had more than a million vehicles on the road as early as 1940. Just 10 years later, that number more than doubled as the post-war LA population and economy boomed. City leaders, including the Chamber of Commerce, realized that air pollution threatened tourism, real estate and agriculture.

“They’d promoted Los Angeles as this clean, healthy place,” said historian Sarah Elkind, author of "How Local Politics Shape Federal Policy: Business, Power, and the Environment in Twentieth Century Los Angeles." So in 1947, the county established an Air Pollution Control District, the first of its kind.

No one, however, blamed the automobile at first. “People did look at tailpipes, but auto exhaust was clear and the smog was brown, so it didn’t seem like there was a direct relationship between those two things,” Elkind said.

“It took about 10 years for there to be concrete laboratory-proven evidence that the hydrocarbon emissions from tailpipes, when exposed to sunlight and nitrogen oxides, turned into photochemical smog.”

Arie Haagen-Smit, a biochemist who had been studying the flavor of pineapples at the California Institute of Technology, not only made that discovery, but fought hard to convince politicians, regulators and industry that cars were the biggest smog culprit in Los Angeles.

The oil and automobile industries pushed back on his research. Chip Jacobs, co-author of “Smogtown: The Lung-Burning History of Pollution in Los Angeles,” says a turning point came when the oil industry-funded Stanford Research Institute sent a member to Caltech to discredit Haagen-Smit’s findings.

“The best thing that happened to LA lungs was when the man from SRI came in and smeared his reputation,” Jacobs said. Haagen-Smit was furious, and vowed to prove industry wrong. He redoubled his research efforts. By the mid 1950s there was no doubt among scientists that cars were a primary factor in LA’s smog crisis.

That doesn’t mean the public believed it immediately, or that car owners were willing to cut back on driving. Or that the auto industry sprang into action.

“Los Angeles had no influence over the auto manufacturers,” Elkind said. Plus, smog wasn’t yet a national problem. “It was very easy to dismiss smog as a quirk of LA geography.”

Automakers were slow to respond, wary of any change that would add cost to their vehicles. “It’s like the stages of grief,” said Nichols. “At first you deny it. Then you fight against it. And finally you grudgingly accept it, embrace it and move on.” That process took almost two decades.

James Lents, former executive officer of California’s South Coast Air Quality Management District, says Californians started agitating for change as the science became stronger and smog’s public health dangers became clearer. On bad days, parents kept children out of school, emergency rooms overflowed, athletic events were canceled.

Local doctors were beginning to talk about possible connections between lung cancer, heart problems and smog. In 1954, as many as 6,000 people showed up to a protest meeting in Pasadena. Los Angeles’s pollution czar volunteered to sit in Haagen-Smit’s plexiglass smog chamber to prove ozone’s danger. He got bronchitis.

“It was just a toxic atmosphere,” said Jeff Slade, who grew up in Beverly Hills. “I was thinking, 'what could you compare it to today?' And I think you’d have to look at cities like Beijing. It hurt, literally hurt, to breathe.”

Slade’s mother, Afton Slade, was president of Stamp Out Smog, a women’s activist group based in Beverly Hills. It was one of many anti-smog groups that sprouted in Los Angeles County during the late 1950s and early 1960s. They influenced public opinion and pushed politicians to do something about the crisis.

Stamp Out Smog had Hollywood connections and a flair for the dramatic. “So they did flashy things,” Slade said. His mother presided over a media event at the Ambassador Hotel in 1964 with a birthday cake marking 21 years of smog. It had a skull and crossbones on top in frosting.

“The press just loved this kind of thing,” Slade said. They also loved it when the women brought their kids to rallies wearing gas masks, a bit of political theater that became fairly common at smog protests.

These rallies and media events were among the earliest “environmental” protests in the U.S. The word “environmentalism” wasn’t really in the vocabulary yet. Rachel Carson’s book “Silent Spring” had just recently introduced a scary new thought – that technological progress could kill us. By the early 1960s, California demanded the first anti-smog controls on cars.

“The elected officials finally believed that cars were a big part of the problem and were going to regulate them, in spite of what the automobile manufacturers said,” James Lents said.

The 60s produced a dizzying series of changes, in California and the nation. In 1963, Congress enacted the first Clean Air Act, a tacit acknowledgement that smog had become a national problem. Two years later, it called for the first national emissions standards for cars.

In 1966 the California Highway Patrol began random roadside inspections of early smog devices. A year later Congress gave California permission to set even stricter emission standards than the federal government’s.

In 1969 the Justice Department sued automakers for conspiring to delay anti-smog devices, a lawsuit ultimately settled out of court. Then, Congress enacted the law that has set the framework for U.S. air pollution regulation, the Clean Air Act of 1970.

“It wasn’t until the Clean Air Act in 1970 that you had a law that said, 'we’re going to set an air quality standard based on a public health measurement, and then the government will go out and take whatever action is needed to reach those limits,'” Nichols said. “But that was a shift, and it was based on growing populist opposition to how bad the air was.”

California still has some of the worst air in the country. But “worst” isn’t as bad as it used to be. Ozone levels in Los Angeles are just 40 percent of what they were in the mid-1970s, and that’s with more than twice the number of cars.

In the end, the air got better not because people were willing to change their behavior, but because technology improved, according to Lents. “My belief has been that humans are very innovative,” he said. “My experience was if you pushed them a little bit, they find solutions. They just don’t like to do it because it takes time and costs money and they don’t like to push ahead.”

Lents said fighting air pollution is an ongoing battle. As the science gets better, the more is learned about air pollution’s dangers. The “goal posts” move and air quality standards get higher.

In the past few years, scientists have grown increasingly alarmed about so-called “particulate matter” pollution, which embeds deeply in the lungs and is linked to serious heart and lung problems, including an increased risk of lung cancer. Los Angeles was ranked fourth for particle pollution in the American Lung Association’s latest “State of the Air” rankings. Now California regulators are struggling to bring particle pollution under control, along with ozone.

“We don’t meet federal ambient air standards in Los Angeles,” Nichols said. “We’ve brought the levels way, way down to the point where we don’t trigger actual health alerts very often, but I’m not satisfied with that.”

Nichols says by 2030 California needs to “move people and goods” with zero emissions technology. That gives the state 15 years to get its act together. Can it do it again?

European court ruling continues to vex Google

Marketplace - American Public Media - Mon, 2014-07-14 02:00

In the wake of the European Court of Justice ruling that Google had to address individuals' “Right to be Forgotten” online, the company has already had over 70,000 takedown requests. Google has begun dealing with requests and pulling things down, including links to articles in British publications, while others were brought back after uproar. 

 One major issues is that these thousands of takedown requests are targeted geographically.

“When a request is granted to have a search result de-linked from someone’s name, that delinking will only take place in the localized Europe-based versions of the Google search engine,” says Jonathan Zittrain of the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University.

According to Zittrain, both the ECJ decision and the Facebook experiment are two sides of the same coin — In both, the question is tinkering with online streams of content. In the case of Facebook, people objected to the idea that humans are hand-tweaking the feed, which is essentially what the ECJ decision asks for more of from Google.

Says Zittrain: “There’s going to be many hands on that tiller for search results, and we might have been better off with the roulette wheel.”

Women led air pollution protests from the start

Marketplace - American Public Media - Mon, 2014-07-14 02:00

Ask Jeff Slade if his mother was a “typical housewife” and he’ll say, “There was nothing typical about my mother.” Karenlin Madoff will tell you the same about her mom. She wasn’t a housewife, she was “a force of nature.”

Both Madoff’s and Slade’s mothers were clean air activists in the 1960s, when “clean air activist” wasn’t really a thing. But those 1960s “housewives” had plenty of sisterly company in the cause. In fact, American women had been agitating for clean air well before they could vote.

“Women’s activism was critical in getting the conversation started,” says historian David Stradling, author of “Smokestacks and Progressives: Environmentalists, Engineers and Air Quality in America, 1881-1951.”

For decades, coal smoke “had been seen as a sign of progress,” Stradling says. “But by the beginning of the 20th century, women are beginning to complain in an organized fashion about the effects of smoke on their home and on the health of their children. So they begin to redefine smoke as problematic.”

Jump ahead 60 years. Now, smog was the problem. Michelle Madoff was a young mother in Pittsburgh, married to a heart surgeon. She’d developed asthma after moving to the polluted city from Canada. So she decided to take action.

“She started hosting meetings in our living room,” her daughter says. “My mom said she went into the kitchen to get more drinks for people who were in the living room, and that’s when they voted her president of GASP.”

GASP was short for Group Against Smog and Pollution. What sounds like a clunky, if not obvious, name for a clean air group probably sounded both new and aggressive back then. So did women’s activist groups like S.O.S. or Stamp Out Smog in Los Angeles.

Afton Slade, wife of a Beverly Hills ad man, joined with other well-to-do women in that city in the late 50s to start protesting Los Angeles’ notoriouisly bad air. Another group of women in Pasadena, dubbed themselves the “Smog-A-Tears,” a spoof on Disney’s Mouseketeers.

“There they are dressed up in their little June Cleaver, you know, the pearls and the dress and so forth, wearing gas masks,” says historian Nancy Unger, author of “Beyond Nature’s Housekeepers: American Women in Environmental History”.

Unger and Stradling say women in both the Progressive Era and the 1960s were often ignored if they started talking about technical solutions or specific legislation to combat air pollution. “Those weren’t seen as women’s realms,” Stradling says.

They were more accepted if they “stayed within the issues that women are expected to speak on - children, health, cleanliness of the home, aesthetics of the city and moral standards.”

Women realized that. So sometimes they played the gender card. Housewives dragged their kids to anti-smog marches. They partnered with male scientists and politicians.

Slade’s mom went straight to the top. She consulted with Arie Haagen-Smit, the pioneering chemist who connected the dots between smog and cars in Los Angeles.

“My mom was on the phone all the time, I remember that, with Dr. Haagen-Smit,” Slade says. “So here she was, on the one hand, working with the Caltech scientist who really isolated the reasons behind ozone, and on the other hand, bringing her children to demonstrations with gas masks on.”

Stradling says today, the ranks of environmentalists are filled with both women and men. But today’s activists still get some of the same pushback the “anti-smoke” ladies got in 1900. They “continued to be assailed for not understanding the economic repercussions of environmental regulations,” Stradling says. “And that’s something that persists to this day."

Who needs insurance? GM paying victims on its own.

Marketplace - American Public Media - Mon, 2014-07-14 02:00

General Motors says it will settle claims stemming from its defective ignition switch with its own cash, not through liability insurance. Why would an insured company pay millions of dollars — and maybe more — out of pocket?

Well, there are lots of potential reasons.

First, there’s precedent for creating compensation funds with your company’s own money, according to Robert Hartwig, president of the Insurance Information Institute, an industry-funded group.

“BP, in the wake of the Deepwater Horizon disaster, was completely self-insured,” says Hartwig. “Generally speaking, what it paid, and what it continues to pay, is completely out of its own pocket.”

It’s common for companies to self-insure when they get to be the size of GM, according to Peter Viscardi, senior advisor with Hanover Stone Partners LLC, an insurance risk management consulting firm.

“Many of these companies have assets greater than insurance companies. Their balance sheets are strong enough to absorb a certain degree of losses on their own,” Viscardi says.

These big companies, like BP, often set up captives: wholly owned insurance subsidiaries. A trade publication called Business Insider describes GM as largely self-insuring prior to bankruptcy. Big companies can also purchase insurance on top of their in-house resources.

GM won’t disclose the exact terms of its coverage, though a spokesman says it has insurance.

Experts say there are several reasons why GM might not draw on outside insurance to pay for the ignition switch compensation fund.

The claims arose over a long period of time. If GM didn’t inform its insurers about potential liabilities while renewing policies, there could be consequences for the automaker. Also, it’s unclear which liabilities remain post-bankruptcy.

But a lot of it comes down to expedience.

Insurance companies scrutinize claims for extenuating circumstances like, “Was the driver speeding? Was the driver impaired?” Hartwig says.

Kenneth Feinberg, the director of GM’s compensation fund, has explicitly said those factors won’t be considered now.

Not tapping insurance means GM can expedite the compensation process, lessening what analysts see as a bigger risk: further damage to its reputation.

Host: General Motors says it will pay victims of its defective ignition switch with its own cash … not through liability insurance. Why would an insured company pay out of pocket? Kate Davidson explains.


There’s precedent for creating a compensation fund with your own money, says Robert Hartwig. He heads the Insurance Information Institute … an industry funded group.

Hartwig: BP in the wake of the Deepwater Horizon disaster was completely self-insured. Generally speaking, what it paid, and what it continues to pay, is out of its own pocket.

Risk management consultant Peter Viscardi says a lot of companies self-insure when they get to be the size of GM.

Viscardi: Many of these companies have assets greater than insurance companies. Their balance sheets are strong enough to absorb a certain degree of losses on their own.

They often set up captives … wholly owned insurance subsidiaries. GM won’t disclose the terms of its coverage … though it says it has insurance. Still, there may be reasons not to use it. Robert Hartwig says insurance companies scrutinize claims:

Hartwig: Was the driver speeding? Was the driver impaired?

Not tapping insurance means GM could lessen what analysts see as a bigger risk: more damage to its reputation. I’m Kate Davidson, for Marketplace.



Apple trademarks store layout, genius idea dries up

Marketplace - American Public Media - Mon, 2014-07-14 01:00

Another one of my genius ideas has just bitten the dust.   

A headline hit the news wires that that Apple can have a trademark on the layout of its stores. Obviously, Apple has a trademark on the fruit-shaped logo that’s on its stores. Now, a court in Brussels says that the design of the store itself is a trademark, meaning it’s a sign: If you see a retail layout with a lot of white and glass, flat tables with electronics gear and a Genius bar, then that tells you it’s an Apple store -  not a lingerie store, a plumbing supply store, or a Samsung store.

It turns out Apple already had a trademark on its store layout in the U.S. This is sad for me because I had a fabulous concept that was going to make me rich. What about setting up a Genius Bar that serves drinks? It would feature, wait for it, the Apple-tini. (Note to Apple lawyers: that’s a joke, just a joke. My grandfather owned a bar in Brooklyn but I have no plans).

The story of the Apple store is interesting because it highlights the different ways people can protect their creations in an economy increasingly driven by intellectual property. Apple’s store layout isn’t an invention, so it wouldn’t get a patent. Apple’s store layout is not a tangible expression of a work of authorship, like a book, a photograph, or a song which could get copyright protection. In America, a trademark is a phrase, a design, or words that distinguishes Apple stores from another store. And these things can be worth a fortune.

At the dawn of the Internet when I was hosting Marketplace, I got sick and tired of the overused metaphor to describe the emerging web. It was “information superhighway” just about every time. Every innovation was an “onramp to the information highway,” or a glitch was a “broken down truck on the information superhighway.” So I asked Marketplace listeners to suggest an alternative metaphor.

Back then, one (genius) listener had a fabulous suggestion. Instead of the information superhighway, why not call it the ELVIS: The Electronic Linkage for Video and Information Services? So I mentioned this listener suggestion on the radio, as a joke.  Ha, ha, one Marketplace listener wants to call the information superhighway the ELVIS instead.

And as night follows day, Marketplace received a cease and desist letter from Elvis Presley’s lawyers, warning us that this would violate the King’s intellectual property. At one level? Give me a break, this wasn’t a going concern we were calling The ELVIS, it was a line in a listener response segment of a radio show. On the other hand, maybe they were smart to write the letter, because calling the Internet The ELVIS was the kind of very clever idea that could have had legs. Mind you, this was in 1994 - way, way before people were pumping video through the Internet. That was a listener with some serious foresight.

What are other creative ways people have used intellectual property law?  The top NBA draft pick from a couple of years ago, Anthony Davis, got a copyright on his unibrow. Obviously he didn’t invent the concept of eyebrows that flow together, so he couldn’t patent it. He didn’t compose the unibrow symphony, so copyright wouldn’t work. But when it comes to distinguishing himself from other sports figures, the “basketball guy with the unibrow” was judged to be a way to distinguish his brand from the competition.

Take the quiz below to see if you can guess which signature sayings and brands are trademarked. var _polldaddy = [] || _polldaddy; _polldaddy.push( { type: "iframe", auto: "1", domain: "", id: "is-it-trademarked", placeholder: "pd_1405330315" } ); (function(d,c,j){if(!document.getElementById(j)){var pd=d.createElement(c),s;;pd.src=('https:'==document.location.protocol)?'':'';s=document.getElementsByTagName(c)[0];s.parentNode.insertBefore(pd,s);}}(document,'script','pd-embed'));

To Make Children Healthier, A Doctor Prescribes A Trip To The Park

NPR News - Mon, 2014-07-14 00:28

To get his young patients moving, Dr. Robert Zarr whips out his pad and prescribes a park. And not just any park. One chosen for the child from a 380-park database.

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Israel Downs Drone As Gaza Conflict Enters 7th Day

NPR News - Mon, 2014-07-14 00:18

Israel's military said it downed a drone along its southern coastline on Monday, the first time it encountered such a weapon since its campaign against the Gaza Strip militants began last week.

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Switzerland's Lindt To Buy Russell Stover Candies

NPR News - Sun, 2014-07-13 23:55

Swiss chocolate maker Lindt & Spruengli says it is buying U.S. manufacturer Russell Stover Candies, Inc., for an undisclosed sum. Lindt says it will become the No. 3 chocolate maker in North America.

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Saskawhat? A Novel Berry From Canada Takes Root On Michigan Farms

NPR News - Sun, 2014-07-13 23:34

Some rookie farmers in northern Michigan are growing saskatoon, an imported shrub from Canada that looks like blueberry. They're also experimenting with it in the kitchen — in jams and pies.

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How Banning One Question Could Help Ex-Offenders Land A Job

NPR News - Sun, 2014-07-13 23:28

Some say the box on job applications that asks, "Have you ever been convicted of a crime?" prevents ex-offenders from getting a fair shot. New laws prohibit firms from asking about a criminal record.

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Food-Mood Connection: How You Eat Can Amp Up Or Tamp Down Stress

NPR News - Sun, 2014-07-13 23:27

We tend to soothe ourselves with sugar-laden foods when we're feeling strained. But they may make us feel even worse. Protein and omega-3s, on the other hand, can help reduce stress, researchers say.

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China Indicts GlaxoSmithKline Team On Misuse Of Private Info

NPR News - Sun, 2014-07-13 22:53

Chinese authorities have indicted British and American investigators hired by GlaxoSmithKline on charges of illegally obtaining and selling private information, state media reported Monday.

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Princess Of 'Fresh Prince' Brings History To Children

NPR News - Sun, 2014-07-13 13:03

Karyn Parsons, best known for her role as Hilary Banks on The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, now runs an organization that makes animated short films about influential African-Americans throughout history.

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Pope Reportedly Says That 1 In 50 Clergy Are Pedophiles

NPR News - Sun, 2014-07-13 11:54

In an interview with an Italian newspaper, Francis is quoted as calling pedophilia a "leprosy in our house." The Vatican has disputed parts of the article.

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Germany Wins World Cup Over Argentina With Late-Game Goal

NPR News - Sun, 2014-07-13 10:43

In a tense match that saw a lot of action but no score for more than 90 minutes of play, Germany was finally victorious over Argentina to take home the 2014 World Cup title on Sunday with a 1-0 win.

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