National News

Putin Critic Boris Nemtsov Shot Dead In Moscow

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 14:28

On Friday, gunmen shot to death the prominent Russian opposition figure Boris Nemtsov. Nemtsov was a longtime Russian opposition leader and a sharp critic of President Vladimir Putin.

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Mexican Attorney General Who Handled Case Of Vanished Students To Step Down

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 14:27

Murillo Karam ran the investigation when 43 college students disappeared. He's now stepping down.

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New Museum Depicts 'The Life Of A Slave From Cradle To The Tomb'

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 14:03

A New Orleans attorney has turned an antebellum plantation into a new museum. You won't find hoop skirts and mint juleps, but stark relics at a site devoted entirely to a realistic look at slavery.

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Jeb's Rowdy Supporters Help Him Escape the CPAC Lion's Den

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 13:58

The former Florida governor's supporters shouted down his hecklers at his much-anticipated appearance at the Conservative Political Action Conference.

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Putin Critic Boris Nemtsov Shot Dead

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 13:41

Nemtsov served as a governor and deputy prime minister in the 1990s. He later became an opposition leader and sharp critic of Russian President Vladimir Putin. He was killed on a street in Moscow.

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The Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, Longtime President of Notre Dame University, Dies

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 13:19

Father Ted, as he was known to his friends, was influential in reshaping Catholic higher education. He was also a champion for civil rights and nuclear disarmament.

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#NPRreads: A Sign Of The Times? Trinidad Offers Venezuela Toilet Paper For Oil

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 12:17

For your weekend, here are three recommendations for stories that may surprise you about the rise of OxyContin, the fall of Venezuela and an undocumented immigrant who made money for Goldman Sachs.

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Waiting for a big break in Germany's new economy

Marketplace - American Public Media - Fri, 2015-02-27 11:21

Felicitas Sonnenberg is a waitress with dark hair and bright eyes, and works at a trendy restaurant in Berlin where business people go for a nice lunch.

Krissy Clark/Marketplace

As she darts from table to table, she takes customers’ orders with a pen and pad of paper she keeps tucked in a black, polka-dotted belt strapped around her waist. It holds not just her order pad, but, she hopes, her ticket to making it in the German economy.

A little context. Maybe when you think of the German economy, certain things come to mind: good pay, lots of vacation, strong social-safety net, perhaps something about precise German engineering.

For many years, those clichés were pretty accurate. Precise German engineering led to lots of well-made German products like cars, engines and industrial machines, built by lots of well-paid German workers — who could be so well-paid because their well-made products were in demand around the world. Germany called it their “economic miracle,” or Wirtschaftswunder, and it led to the companion doctrine of Wholstand Für Alle, which translates to “prosperity for all.” 

“That was the promise after the Second World War, that we will have a strong economy but that the profits will be shared so everyone can profit from the growth,” says Peter Bofinger, an economic adviser to German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

But the shifts in the German economy brought on by unification and globalization have called the promise of shared prosperity into question, says Bofinger. “We have seen in the last twenty years more or less a stagnation of living standards for the wide majority of the population.”

Along with those fears has come a new German reality, a rise in the number of working poor. Many well-paid manufacturing jobs in Germany have gone overseas, or to European countries with lower labor costs, leaving behind more temporary, part-time and low-paying work in Germany.

And that is where waitress Felicitas Sonnenberg comes in. Sonnenberg makes 8.50 euro an hour, about the equivalent of $9.65 in the United States.

Waitresses, taxi drivers, hairdressers and workers in other kinds of service industries make up a large share of Germany's new working poor. Pay has gotten low enough in many of these industries in early 2015 Germany established a minimum wage for the first time ever.

In the case of Sonnenberg, the boost she got when the minimum wage kicked in still wasn’t enough for her to make ends meet.

“It would be wonderful to live with my money — what I earn in my job,” she says. “But it's not enough without help of the state.”

Sonnenberg is separated from her husband, raising two young children on her own. She gets some aid from the government that goes toward rent and daycare, and she says she is grateful for it. But in recent years Germany, long known for a strong social-safety net, has been rethinking how much to spend on that net. Sonnenberg says she can feel the scrutiny when she goes to her local welfare office.

“They were treating me like somebody who doesn't want to work — who only wants to get the money of the state, “ she says. “And I am not like that.”

Sonnenberg works part time right now, but she says as a single mom even that can be a tough balancing act. Once she is home from work, her children are eager for her attention. Bath time, dinner time, homework, bedtime, “Everything has to be done in a certain way, to finish in time to bring the children to bed at 9 o’clock,” she says.

But after the kids are in bed, Sonnenberg gets busy making plans for her future.

That black dotted belt she was wearing at the restaurant, to keep her pen and order pad? She designed and made it herself, after feeling frustrated with the standard money belts that most German wait staff use.

Krissy Clark/Marketplace

She has shopped her design around to people in the fashion industry and received coaching from state-funded agencies on how to prototype and trademark the design. “I want to produce this and have my own company,” she says.

She already has the trademark certificate framed, hanging in a narrow hallway in her apartment. “This is my office,” she says with a laugh.

Krissy Clark/Marketplace

Sonnenberg says she has told the welfare agency about her efforts to start her own business; she says she was warned it might be too much for a single mother, and that maybe she should stick to waitressing. And so she says she is torn, between the income she makes now, and taking a risk to make more. 

“I am believing in my product because I love it and I use it every day, and I think that there is really a need of this thing,” she says. “But I have a fear to go into the business market, because I feel so little.”

Yet, little creative start-up businesses like Sonnenberg's are being touted by German politicians as one of the best new hopes for the German economy.

As scared as Sonnenberg is, she is also hopeful.

“I always said when I really found my company, I will open a bottle of Champagne — but I never did it, because you never know when, when is the real start,” she says.

Because even with her framed trademark certificate and her prototypes, Sonnenberg says it's hard to know when you've really made it in the German economy these days.

What Do Conservatives Want For 2016? We Asked

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 11:08

Attendees at the Conservative Political Action Conference say they want the next president to focus on bipartisanship, faith, security and lower taxes.

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What happens at Netflix when House of Cards goes live

Marketplace - American Public Media - Fri, 2015-02-27 11:06

Update Feb. 27, 2015: Well, here we are a little over a year later and "House of Cards" Season 3 is up on Netflix. We can't promise this is exactly how things went down this time around (there was that slight hiccup this year when the season accidentally got released early) but it's safe to say someone called in sick to work today to be the next super-binger.

Original story: Feb. 14, 2014

The new world of Internet TV is really geeky.

I spent some time in the Netflix war room last night, as the company debuted the second season of its smash hit series, "House of Cards." The war room is a conference room with big table in the middle, and as we approached midnight, a bunch of engineers were crouched over their laptops.

Jeremy Edberg, Netflix’s reliability architect, was one of them.

"So when the clock hits 12, the first thing I’m going to be doing is looking at our dashboards to see if anybody is playing the show," Edberg said.

If nobody is playing "House of Cards," that means there’s a problem. Unlike traditional TV, people now use hundreds of different devices to go online. And last night, the engineers were there to make sure "House of Cards" would play on every one of them.

Netflix monitors House of Cards mentions on social media during the season two launch in 2014.

Courtesy of Netflix

"We’ve probably got sitting around the room an X-Box, a Play Station, Nintendo, Apple devices, Android devices and a couple of different TVs from our partner manufacturers," Edberg said.

The engineers can tell, in real time, how many people are streaming the show on these devices, where they are and who’s binging. Edberg said the last time "House of Cards" launched, the engineers figured out the entire season was about 13 hours.

"We looked to [see]  if anybody was finishing in that amount of time," Edberg said. "And there was one person who finished with just three minutes longer than there is content. So basically, three total minutes of break in roughly 13 hours."

That’s right, of its 40 million subscribers around the world, Netflix was able the find the one super binger. Netflix spokesman Joris Evers said Netflix knows everything about your viewing habits.

Netflix knows who's watching the show and in what quantities.

Courtesy of Netflix

"'House of Cards' was obviously a big bet for Netflix," Joris said. "But it was a calculated bet because we knew Netflix members like political dramas, that they like serialized dramas. That they are fans of Kevin Spacey, that they like David Fincher."

Evers said Netflix uses this data when it decides on which original program to buy.

"We monitor what you watch, how often you watch things," Evers said. "Does a movie have a happy ending, what’s the level of romance, what's the level of violence, is it a cerebral kind of movie or is it light and funny?"

Netflix’s move into original programming is all about taking viewers from other media companies, especially HBO, said Brad Adgate, an analyst at Horizon Media.

He says Netflix has more subscribers than HBO, but when it comes to making money, Netflix is David to HBO’s Goliath. But Adgate says, Netflix does have its slingshot.

A scene from the Netflix War Room during 2014.

Courtesy of Netflix

"I think right now Netflix does have a competitive advantage over HBO because of the analytics," Adgate said.

Networks like HBO still rely, on large part, on Nielsen data. But the information Netflix gets is much more textured, granular — and valuable.

"And I think that’s where television and streaming video is headed — but I think right now streaming video is in the lead," Adgate said. That said, he added, it’s just a matter of time before HBO and other premium channels catch up.

In The South, Way More People Are Identifying As Both Black And White

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 10:12

Data from the 2010 Census show that the number is rising fastest in Southern states, and among toddlers.

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5 Quotes From Earl Lloyd, The First Black Player In The NBA

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 10:00

Earl Lloyd, who died Thursday, once recalled telling a young man who thanked him for blazing a trail, "Man, you owe me absolutely nothing."

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5 Quotes From Earl Lloyd, The First Black Player In The NBA

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 10:00

Earl Lloyd, who died Thursday, once recalled telling a young man who thanked him for blazing a trail, "Man, you owe me absolutely nothing."

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Families Of ISIS Victims React To Identification Of 'Jihadi John'

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 09:52

The family of Steven Sotloff said they hoped the man identified as Mohammed Emzawi is brought to justice. The daughter of aid worker David Haines said she wanted a "bullet between ... [his] eyes."

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Families Of ISIS Victims React To Identification Of 'Jihadi John'

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 09:52

The family of Steven Sotloff said they hoped the man identified as Mohammed Emzawi is brought to justice. The daughter of aid worker David Haines said she wanted a "bullet between ... [his] eyes."

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When Food Is Too Good To Waste, College Kids Pick Up The Scraps

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 09:51

Millions of tons of food are wasted on college campuses around the country, and students are noticing. Some of them are now rescuing food to make tasty meals for the needy and compost for gardens.

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When Food Is Too Good To Waste, College Kids Pick Up The Scraps

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 09:51

Millions of tons of food are wasted on college campuses around the country, and students are noticing. Some of them are now rescuing food to make tasty meals for the needy and compost for gardens.

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Finding the natural in natural flavors

Marketplace - American Public Media - Fri, 2015-02-27 09:39

Unless you grow or hunt all your own food, chances are you've encountered natural flavors in things you eat. According to a study by the Environmental Working Group, "natural flavor" is now the fourth most common ingredient in food after salt, water, and sugar.

So, what are natural flavors? Why are they seemingly in everything? And if they are so natural, why don't ingredient labels list what they are? These questions come from Marketplace listener Jean Beach.

Since being diagnosed with Celiac Disease, Beach has been diligently checking ingredient labels. She sees natural flavors everywhere. On the iced tea she drinks, the ingredient list reads water, natural flavors, and then tea, which means there's more natural flavoring in Beach's tea than actual tea.

When it comes to flavors, Lisa Lefferts with the Center for Science in the Public Interest says there are a lot of mysteries, and calls the flavor industry a “big black box.” Lefferts says a flavor ingredient can be some combination of about 2,300 possible substances. 

By reading the ingredient label, customers can tell if the flavor is artificial or natural. Artificial flavors are entirely man-made — chemicals synthesized to deliver a particular taste. Natural flavors are processed from a substance initially found in nature, but those substances can vary widely.

Take castoreum, for instance. “Castoreum is a natural flavor extracted from the anal castor sacs of beavers,” Lefferts says, “and it's used to help create a vanilla or occasionally a fruity taste. So, in other words, vanilla flavor doesn't necessarily come from the vanilla bean.”

Okay, you are probably not eating castoreum, it's expensive and primarily used in fragrances. Most natural flavors come from more obvious sources like herbs and fruit.

The problem Lefferts says, is that flavors are not real food. “The main reason to be concerned about flavors, whether they are natural or artificial, is that when they are in there, you can be pretty sure that something real and nutritious has been left out,” she says.

But raw ingredients can be tricky. They may be expensive, or spoil. In packaged food, they may not even taste right, says John Hallagan. He' s with the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association. Hallagan says “You can't achieve the same flavor sensation from just putting strawberries in a bottle and mixing water in. It's not going to taste like strawberry to you.”

So, companies craft their own strawberry flavors — maybe they mix in a little fruit extract with some compounds processed from other plants, even trees. 

Sue Ebeler, a food scientist and professor at the University of California Davis, says a few drops of the right ingredients can make a big impact on flavor. We're talking about parts per trillion, she says, just a few molecules in an entire swimming pool.

Ebeler says advances in science have helped companies understand which molecules influence taste. A gas chromatograph could break down the flavor components of a substance to help replicate it.

So, why not explain what natural flavors are on ingredient labels? For one thing, Well, companies want to keep their special formulas secret — plus what sounds more appetizing: Things like beaver castor sacs and a long list of chemicals, or natural flavor?

“Putting the word natural anywhere there gives you an aura,” Marsha Cohen says. Cohen is a professor at the UC Hastings College of Law, and says when it comes to selling food, she says, it's all about the aura.

I call Jean Beach back to tell her what I've found out. She's not impressed by the “natural aura."

Beach says she feels less comfortable about natural flavors, and would like to avoid them altogether. Problem is, they're in so many things.

Parents Choose A Simple Device To Reshape A Baby's Ear

NPR News - Fri, 2015-02-27 09:07

Sometimes a baby's outer ear may be a tad misshapen. Surgery can help later on, but a plastic mold makes the most of the fact that a newborn's ears are pliable. They can reshape within weeks.

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